Influence of Disorder and State Filling on Charge-Transfer-State Absorption and Emission Spectra

Saeed Uz Zaman Khan, Barry P. Rand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection titled We conduct comprehensive temperature-dependent measurements of the charge-transfer- (CT) state photocurrent and emission spectra for two organic small molecule donor:fullerene () acceptor bulk heterojunction solar cells. We reveal that the CT spectral width and position are affected by static energetic disorder in the blend, especially evident at low temperatures. The relative contributions of the static and dynamic disorder broadening in the CT spectra are effectively extracted through consideration of a Gaussian CT energetic distribution. However, electroluminescence (EL) spectra can only be interpreted when injected carriers reach thermal equilibrium sites within the disordered density of states and emission occurs from the lowest possible CT energy. For the blend with the smaller energetic disorder, this is the case near room temperature; for the other blend with larger static disorder, carriers fail to reach thermal equilibrium sites even at room temperature and EL spectra need to be interpreted with care. For example, in the latter case, the effect of energetic disorder might not be apparent from EL spectra because the lowest energy sites are not participating. Nonetheless, these states contribute to the photocurrent generation-recombination and energy-loss processes and thus demand accurate characterization, which we show is feasible through temperature-dependent external quantum-efficiency measurements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number044026
JournalPhysical Review Applied
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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