In vivo recordings of spontaneous and odor-modulated dynamics in the Limax olfactory lobe

I. R.C. Cooke, A. Gelperin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


The major central site of olfactory information processing in the terrestrial slug Limax maximus is the procerebral lobe of the cerebral ganglion, which exhibits oscillatory dynamics of its local field potential and propagates activity waves from its apex to its base, as determined by multisite optical and electrical measurements in vitro. The learning-dependent uptake of Lucifer yellow into procerebral neurons suggests that the procerebral lobe may form learned representations of odors. To determine the role of the procerebral lobe in odor processing and odor learning, we developed procedures to implant fine wire electrodes in the lobe, which allowed recordings of local field potential in freely behaving slugs. The procerebral lobe displays oscillatory dynamics of its local field potential in vivo; however the amplitude and frequency of the local field potential are much more variable in vivo than in vitro. Odor presentation leads to increased frequency and amplitude of the local field potential signal. Several lines of evidence indicate that the variations in the local field potential signal recorded in vivo are not due to movement artifacts or activity in adjacent muscles. Multiple amine, gaseous, and peptide neuromodulators known to be present in the procerebral lobe provide pathways by which activity or coupling of bursting neurons in the procerebral lobe could be altered, resulting in the observed amplitude and frequency modulation of the local field potential.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)126-141
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Neurobiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2001

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • General Neuroscience


  • Binding
  • Learning
  • Olfaction
  • Oscillation
  • Waves


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