Improved Light Extraction in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes via Semiconductor Dilution

Emmanuel O. Afolayan, Ibrahim Dursun, Adrian Pizano, Chao Lang, Dominique Lungwitz, Marina Kondakova, Michael Boroson, Antoine Kahn, Michael Hickner, Noel C. Giebink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Increasing the internal light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is key to improving their performance for solid-state lighting applications; however, it is challenging to do this in a way that is compatible with high volume manufacturing. Here, it is shown that the outcoupling efficiency of OLEDs can be improved by diluting their hole transport layer (HTL) with the low refractive index material trifluoropropyl oligomeric silsesquioxane (F-POSS). Specifically, co-evaporating 40 vol.% F-POSS in the HTL of single and multi-stack phosphorescent OLEDs decreases its refractive index by Δn ≈ 0.2, which in turn yields a ≈12% increase in their outcoupling efficiency with no impact on electrical performance or operational lifetime. This result is significant because F-POSS is a small molecule that sublimes cleanly, does not aggregate, and is compatible with state-of-the-art HTL materials, making it a realistic path to increase light extraction in commercial OLEDs manufactured on existing production lines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2302588
JournalAdvanced Optical Materials
Issue number12
StatePublished - Apr 24 2024
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


  • OLED
  • blend
  • internal light extraction
  • low refractive index
  • outcoupling


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