Implicit Impressions

James S. Uleman, Steven L. Blader, Alexander Todorov

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Implicit impressions are preverbal, non-episodic residues in memory of our observations of, interactions with, and inferences about others. Distinguishing implicit from explicit impressions can be difficult. Sometimes people say one thing about someone but do another, so words and deeds are at odds. Schachter (1987) described implicit memory as "revealed when previous experiences facilitate performance on a task that does not require conscious or intentional recollections of those experiences," whereas explicit memory "requires conscious recollection of previous experiences." There is good experimental support for implicit impressions, including Andersen's work on socialcognitive transference and Carlston and Skowronski's work on spontaneous trait inference. Implicit impressions affect trait judgments of others, as has beendemonstrated in research on spontaneous trait transference. Implicit and explicit impressions of the same person can be held simultaneously, and their effects can be empirically distinguished. The chapter illustrates how to do this with Jacoby's process dissociation procedure as well as new experimental findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe New Unconscious
PublisherOxford University Press
ISBN (Electronic)9780199847488
ISBN (Print)9780195307696
StatePublished - Mar 22 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Psychology


  • Explicit impressions
  • Explicit memory
  • Implicit impressions
  • Implicit memory
  • Process dissociation procedure
  • Social-cognitive transference
  • Spontaneous trait inference
  • Spontaneous trait transference


Dive into the research topics of 'Implicit Impressions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this