Plasma metabolite concentrations and labeling enrichments are common measures of organismal metabolism. In mice, blood is often collected by tail snip sampling. Here, we systematically examined the effect of such sampling, relative to gold-standard sampling from an in-dwelling arterial catheter, on plasma metabolomics and stable isotope tracing. We find marked differences between the arterial and tail circulating metabolome, which arise from two major factors: handling stress and sampling site, whose effects were deconvoluted by taking a second arterial sample immediately after tail snip. Pyruvate and lactate were the most stress-sensitive plasma metabolites, rising ~14 and ~5-fold. Both acute handling stress and adrenergic agonists induce extensive, immediate production of lactate, and modest production of many other circulating metabolites, and we provide a reference set of mouse circulatory turnover fluxes with noninvasive arterial sampling to avoid such artifacts. Even in the absence of stress, lactate remains the highest flux circulating metabolite on a molar basis, and most glucose flux into the TCA cycle in fasted mice flows through circulating lactate. Thus, lactate is both a central player in unstressed mammalian metabolism and strongly produced in response to acute stress.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - May 23 2023|
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