Imaging Large-Scale Neural Activity with Cellular Resolution in Awake, Mobile Mice

Daniel A. Dombeck, Anton N. Khabbaz, Forrest Collman, Thomas L. Adelman, David W. Tank

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

806 Scopus citations


We report a technique for two-photon fluorescence imaging with cellular resolution in awake, behaving mice with minimal motion artifact. The apparatus combines an upright, table-mounted two-photon microscope with a spherical treadmill consisting of a large, air-supported Styrofoam ball. Mice, with implanted cranial windows, are head restrained under the objective while their limbs rest on the ball's upper surface. Following adaptation to head restraint, mice maneuver on the spherical treadmill as their heads remain motionless. Image sequences demonstrate that running-associated brain motion is limited to ∼2-5 μm. In addition, motion is predominantly in the focal plane, with little out-of-plane motion, making the application of a custom-designed Hidden-Markov-Model-based motion correction algorithm useful for postprocessing. Behaviorally correlated calcium transients from large neuronal and astrocytic populations were routinely measured, with an estimated motion-induced false positive error rate of <5%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-57
Number of pages15
Issue number1
StatePublished - Oct 4 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience




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