We find that whenever the bottom of the conduction band of an insulator lies at positive energy, the image potential gives rise to bands of surface states. We present lower limits for binding energies of electrons to the surface of liquid and solid He3, He4, Ne, H2, and D2. Interaction between electrons and surface phonons (solids) or ripplons (liquids) increases the binding. We argue that these states may have in fact been observed in liquid He4.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)