Motivation: Recent single-cell DNA sequencing technologies enable whole-genome sequencing of hundreds to thousands of individual cells. However, these technologies have ultra-low sequencing coverage (<0.5x per cell) which has limited their use to the analysis of large copy-number aberrations (CNAs) in individual cells. While CNAs are useful markers in cancer studies, single-nucleotide mutations are equally important, both in cancer studies and in other applications. However, ultra-low coverage sequencing yields single-nucleotide mutation data that are too sparse for current single-cell analysis methods. Results: We introduce SBMClone, a method to infer clusters of cells, or clones, that share groups of somatic single-nucleotide mutations. SBMClone uses a stochastic block model to overcome sparsity in ultra-low coverage single-cell sequencing data, and we show that SBMClone accurately infers the true clonal composition on simulated datasets with coverage at low as 0:2x. We applied SBMClone to single-cell whole-genome sequencing data from two breast cancer patients obtained using two different sequencing technologies. On the first patient, sequenced using the 10X Genomics CNV solution with sequencing coverage ≈0:03x, SBMClone recovers the major clonal composition when incorporating a small amount of additional information. On the second patient, where pre- and post-treatment tumor samples were sequenced using DOP-PCR with sequencing coverage ≈0:5x, SBMClone shows that tumor cells are present in the post-treatment sample, contrary to published analysis of this dataset.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computational Mathematics
- Molecular Biology
- Statistics and Probability
- Computer Science Applications
- Computational Theory and Mathematics