We analyzed the interaction between the North American monsoon anticyclone (NAMA) and summertime cross-tropopause convective outflow by applying a trajectory analysis to a climatology of convective overshooting tops (OTs) identified in GOES satellite images, which covers the domain from 29°S to 68°N and from 205 to 1.25°W for the time period of May through September 2013. With this analysis we identified seasonally, geographically, and altitude-dependent variability in NAMA strength and in cross-tropopause convection that control their interaction. We find that the NAMA has the strongest impact on the circulation of convectively influenced air masses in August. Over the entire time period examined the intertropical convergence zone contributes the majority of OTs with a larger fraction of total OTs at 370 K (on average 70%) than at 400 K (on average 52%). During August at 370 K, the convectively influenced air masses within the NAMA circulation, as determined by the trajectory analysis, are primarily sourced from the intertropical convergence zone (monthly average of 66.1%), while at 400 K the Sierra Madres and the Central United States combined constitute the dominant source region (monthly average of 44.1%, compared to 36.6% of the combined Intertropical Convergence Zone regions). When evaluating the impact of cross-tropopause convection on the composition and chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, the effects of the NAMA on both the distribution of convective outflow and the residence time of convectively influenced air masses within the NAMA region must be considered.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Space and Planetary Science