We analyzed the effect of the North American monsoon anticyclone (NAMA) on the meridional transport of summertime cross-tropopause convective outflow by applying a trajectory analysis to a climatology of convective overshooting tops (OTs) identified in GOES satellite images, which covers the domain from 29°S to 68°N and from 205°W to 1.25°W for the time period of May to September, 2013. From this analysis, we identify seasonal development of geographically distinct outflow regions of convectively influenced air masses (CIAMs) from the NAMA circulation to the global stratosphere and quantify the associated meridional displacement of CIAMs. We find that prior to the development of the NAMA, the majority of CIAMs exit the study area in a southeastern region between 5°N and 35°N at 45°W (75.5% in May). During July and August, when the NAMA is strongest, two additional outflow regions develop that constitute the majority of outflow: 68.1% in a northeastern region between 35°N and 60°N at 45°W and 13.4% in a southwestern region between 5°N and 35°N at 145°W. The shift in the location of most CIAM outflow from the pre-NAMA southeastern region to NAMA-dependent northeastern and southwestern regions corresponds to a change in average meridional displacement of CIAMs from 3.3° northward in May to 24.5° northward in July and August. Meridional transport of CIAMs through persistent outflow regions from the NAMA circulation to the global stratosphere has the potential to impact global stratospheric composition beyond convective source regions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Space and Planetary Science