Hydroxyapatite coatings for marble protection: Optimization of calcite covering and acid resistance

Gabriela Graziani, Enrico Sassoni, Elisa Franzoni, George W. Scherer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has a much lower dissolution rate and solubility than calcite, especially in an acidic environment, so it has been proposed for the protection of marble against acidic rain corrosion. Promising results were obtained, but further optimization is necessary as the treated layer is often incomplete, cracked and/or porous. In this paper, several parameters were investigated to obtain a coherent, uncracked layer, and to avoid the formation of metastable, soluble phases instead of HAP: the role of the pH of the starting solution; the effect of organic and inorganic additions, and in particular that of ethanol, as it is reported to adsorb on calcite, hence possibly favoring the growth of the HAP layer. Finally, a double application of the treatment was tested. Results were compared to those obtained with ammonium oxalate treatment, widely investigated for marble protection. Results indicate that adding small amounts of ethanol to the formulation remarkably increases the acid resistance of treated samples, and yields better coverage of the surface without crack formation. The effectiveness of the treatment is further enhanced when a second treatment is applied. The efficacy of ethanol-doped DAP mixtures was found to be remarkably higher than that of ammonium oxalate based treatments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)241-257
Number of pages17
JournalApplied Surface Science
StatePublished - Apr 15 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Surfaces and Interfaces


  • Ammonium oxalate
  • Calcium phosphates
  • Dissolution
  • Ethanol
  • SEM
  • Stone


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