Hydrodynamic simulations of jet- and wind-driven protostellar outflows

Chin Fei Lee, James McLellan Stone, Eve Charis Ostriker, Lee G. Mundy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

97 Scopus citations

Abstract

We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of both jet- and wind-driven models for protostellar outflows in order to make detailed comparisons to the kinematics of observed molecular outflows. The simulations are performed with the ZEUS-2D hydrodynamic code using a simplified equation of state, simplified cooling and no external heating, and no self-gravity. In simulations of steady jets, swept-up ambient gas forms a thin shell that can be identified as a molecular outflow. We find a simple ballistic bow shock model is able to reproduce the structure and transverse velocity of the shell. Position-velocity (PV) diagrams for the shell cut along the outflow axis show a convex spur structure with the highest velocity at the bow tip and low-velocity red and blue components at any viewing angle. The power-law index of the mass-velocity (MV) relationship ranges from 1.5 to 3.5, depending strongly on the inclination. If the jet is time-variable, the PV diagrams show multiple convex spur structures, and the power-law index becomes smaller than the steady jet simulation. In simulations of isothermal steady wide-angle winds, swept-up ambient gas forms a thin shell that at early stages has a similar shape to the shell in the jet-driven model; it becomes broader at later times. We find the structure and kinematics of the shell is well described by a momentum-conserving model similar to that of Shu et al. (1991). In contrast to the results from jet simulations, the PV diagrams for the shell cut along the outflow axis show a lobe structure tilted with source inclination, with components that are primarily either red or blue unless the inclination is nearly in the plane of sky. The power-law index of the MV relationship ranges from 1.3 to 1.8. If the wind is time-variable, the PV diagrams also show multiple structures, and the power-law index becomes smaller than the steady wind simulation. Comparing the different simulations with observations, we find that some outflows, e.g., HH 212, show features consistent with the jet-driven model, while others, e.g., VLA 0548, are consistent with the wind-driven model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)429-442
Number of pages14
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume557
Issue number1 PART 1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 10 2001

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Keywords

  • Hydrodynamics
  • ISM: jets and outflows
  • Methods: numerical
  • Stars: formation

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