Hydrodynamic focusing on a silicon chip: Mixing nanoliters in microseconds

James B. Knight, Ashvin Vishwanath, James P. Brody, Robert H. Austin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

794 Scopus citations


We describe the formation and control of nanoscale, submerged fluid jets. The focusing process necessary to achieve these small length scales is characterized experimentally and theoretically. Fast mixing is one important application of nanoscale fluid control: We demonstrate this with a continuous-flow mixer capable of mix times of less than 10µs and sample consumption rates of nanoliters per second. This new technique facilitates the study of fast reaction kinetics on time scales unattainable with conventional mixing technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3863-3866
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number17
StatePublished - 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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