Hydro-NEXRAD-2: Real-time access to customized radar-rainfall for hydrologic applications

Witold F. Krajewski, Anton Kruger, Satpreet Singh, Bong Chul Seo, James A. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Hydro-NEXRAD-2 (HNX2) is a prototype system that allows hydrologic users real-time access to NEXRAD radar data in support of a wide range of research. The system processes basic radar data (Level II) and delivers radar-rainfall products based on the user's custom selection of features such as spatial domain, rainfall product space and time resolution, and rainfall estimation algorithms. HNX2 collects real-time, unprocessed data from multiple NEXRAD radars as they become available, processes them through a user-configurable pipeline of data-processing modules, and publishes the processed data-products at regular intervals. Modules in the data-processing pipeline encapsulate algorithms such as non-meteorological echo detection, radar range correction, radar-reflectivity-rain rate (Z-R) conversion, echo advection correction, mosaicking of products from multiple radars, and grid projections and transformations. This paper describes the challenges involved in HNX2's development and implementation, which include real-time error-handling, time-synchronization of data from multiple asynchronous sources, generation of multiple-radar metadata products, and distribution of products to a user base with diverse needs and constraints. HNX2 publishes products through automation and allows multiple users access to published products. Currently, HNX2 is serving near real-time rain-rate maps for Iowa in the USA using data from seven radars covering the state. Hydrologic models operated by The University of Iowa's Iowa Flood Center use these products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)580-590
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Hydroinformatics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Atmospheric Science


  • Hydro-NEXRAD
  • Real-time rainfall estimation
  • Super-resolution


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