Spin-photon interfaces based on solid-state atomic defects have enabled a variety of key applications in quantum information processing. To maximize the light-matter coupling strength, defects are often placed inside nanoscale devices. Efficiently coupling light and microwave radiation into these structures is an experimental challenge, especially in cryogenic or high vacuum environments with limited sample access. In this work, we demonstrate a fiber-based scanning probe that simultaneously couples light into a planar photonic circuit and delivers high power microwaves for driving electron spin transitions. The optical portion achieves 46% one-way coupling efficiency, while the microwave portion supplies an AC magnetic field with strength up to 9 Gauss at 10 Watts of input microwave power. The entire probe can be scanned across a large number of devices inside a 3He cryostat without free-space optical access. We demonstrate this technique with silicon nanophotonic circuits coupled to single Er3+ ions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics