Following subcutaneous inoculation of newborn Wistar-Furth rats with human adenovirus type 9 (Ad9), 16 of 16 female and 0 of 11 male rats developed mammary tumors. Tumor-positive animals usually developed tumors in multiple glands. Histopathological analyses indicated that three general categories of tumor could be identified. Mammary fibroadenomas were the most common tumor type encountered, but phyllodeslike tumors and solid sarcomas were also frequently found. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques established that benign fibroadenomas were derived from mammary fibroblasts (collagen type I- and vimentin-positive cells) and that malignant tumors were derived from myoepithelial cells (collagen type IV-, vimentin-, and muscle-specific actin-positive cells). The fact that mammary tumors were limited to female rats suggested that female hormones are essential for tumor growth and development. In this regard, ovariectomy of Ad9-infected female rats prevented tumor development, while subsequent diethylstilbestrol (DES) treatment elicited tumor formation. In addition, Ad9-infected and castrated male rats which received DES also developed mammary tumors. Established male mammary tumors regressed when DES treatment was stopped and reappeared after DES treatment was resumed. Together, these results indicate that estrogen is required for both initiation and maintenance of Ad9-induced mammary tumors. Southern blot analysis of high-molecular-weight tumor DNA showed that mammary tumor cells contained single or multiple integrated copies of the entire Ad9 genome. RNase protection experiments established that estrogen receptor as well as Ad9 E1a and E4 mRNAs were expressed in mammary tumors, but Ad9 E3 and, surprisingly, E1b mRNAs were not expressed at detectable levels.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science