Highly efficient warm white organic light-emitting diodes by triplet exciton conversion

Yi Lu Chang, Yin Song, Zhibin Wang, Michael G. Helander, Jacky Qiu, Lily Chai, Zhiwei Liu, Gregory D. Scholes, Zhenghong Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

185 Scopus citations


White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) are currently under intensive research and development worldwide as a new generation light source to replace problematic incandescent bulbs and fluorescent tubes. One of the major challenges facing WOLEDs has been to achieve high energy efficiency and high color rendering index simultaneously to make the technology competitive against other alternative technologies such as inorganic LEDs. Here, an all-phosphor, four-color WOLEDs is presented, employing a novel device design principle utilizing molecular energy transfer or, specifically, triplet exciton conversion within common organic layers in a cascaded emissive zone configuration to achieve exceptional performance: an 24.5% external quantum efficiency (EQE) at 1000 cd/m2 with a color rendering index (CRI) of 81, and an EQE at 5000 cd/m2 of 20.4% with a CRI of 85, using standard phosphors. The EQEs achieved are the highest reported to date among WOLEDs of single or multiple emitters possessing such high CRI, which represents a significant step towards the realization of WOLEDs in solid-state lighting. A novel four-color white organic light-Organic Light-Emitting Diodes emitting diode architecture employing exciton trapping green molecules which efficiently perform triplet exciton down conversion to co-deposited yellow and red emitters achieves record high performance combinations of external quantum efficiency (EQE) and color rendering index (CRI): an EQE of 23.3% at 1000 cd/m2 and an EQE of 20.4% at 5000 cd/m2 with a CRI of 84 and 85, respectively, excellent for solid-state lighting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)705-712
Number of pages8
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number6
StatePublished - Feb 11 2013
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


  • energy transfer
  • exciton trapping
  • interlayer-free
  • phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes


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