High-resolution submillimeter and near-infrared studies of the transition disk around Sz 91

Takashi Tsukagoshi, Munetake Momose, Jun Hashimoto, Tomoyuki Kudo, Sean Andrews, Masao Saito, Yoshimi Kitamura, Nagayoshi Ohashi, David Wilner, Ryohei Kawabe, Lyu Abe, Eiji Akiyama, Wolfgang Brandner, Timothy D. Brandt, Joseph Carson, Thayne Currie, Sebastian E. Egner, Miwa Goto, Carol Grady, Olivier GuyonYutaka Hayano, Masahiko Hayashi, Saeko Hayashi, Thomas Henning, Klaus W. Hodapp, Miki Ishii, Masanori Iye, Markus Janson, Ryo Kandori, Gillian R. Knapp, Nobuhiko Kusakabe, Masayuki Kuzuhara, Jungmi Kwon, Mike McElwain, Taro Matsuo, Satoshi Mayama, Shoken Miyama, Jun Ichi Morino, Amaya Moro-Martín, Tetsuro Nishimura, Tae Soo Pyo, Eugene Serabyn, Takuya Suenaga, Hiroshi Suto, Ryuji Suzuki, Yasuhiro Takahashi, Hideki Takami, Michihiro Takami, Naruhisa Takato, Hiroshi Terada, Christian Thalmann, Daigo Tomono, Edwin L. Turner, Tomonori Usuda, Makoto Watanabe, John P. Wisniewski, Toru Yamada, Motohide Tamura

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29 Scopus citations


To reveal the structures of a transition disk around a young stellar object in Lupus, Sz 91 , we have performed aperture synthesis 345 GHz continuum and CO(3-2) observations with the Submillimeter Array (1″-3″ resolution) and high-resolution imaging of polarized intensity at the Ks -band using the HiCIAO instrument on the Subaru Telescope (0.″25 resolution). Our observations successfully resolved the inner and outer radii of the dust disk to be 65 and 170 AU, respectively, which indicates that Sz 91 is a transition disk source with one of the largest known inner holes. The model fitting analysis of the spectral energy distribution reveals an H2 mass of 2.4 × 10-3 M in the cold (T < 30 K) outer part at 65 AU <r < 170 AU by assuming a canonical gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100, although a small amount (>3 × 10-9 M ) of hot (T180 K) dust possibly remains inside the inner hole of the disk. The structure of the hot component could be interpreted as either an unresolved self-luminous companion body (not directly detected in our observations) or a narrow ring inside the inner hole. Significant CO(3-2) emission with a velocity gradient along the major axis of the dust disk is concentrated on the Sz 91 position, suggesting a rotating gas disk with a radius of 420 AU. The Sz 91 disk is possibly a rare disk in an evolutionary stage immediately after the formation of protoplanets because of the large inner hole and the lower disk mass than other transition disks studied thus far.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number90
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 10 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • circumstellar matter
  • protoplanetary disks
  • stars: individual (Sz 91)
  • stars: pre-main sequence


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