High hydrogen coverage on graphene via low temperature plasma with applied magnetic field

Fang Zhao, Yevgeny Raitses, Xiaofang Yang, Andi Tan, Christopher G. Tully

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The chemical functionalization of two-dimensional materials is an effective method for tailoring their chemical and electronic properties with encouraging applications in energy, catalysis, and electronics. One exemplary 2D material with remarkable properties, graphene, can be exploited for hydrogen storage and large on/off ratio devices by hydrogen termination. In this work, we describe a promising plasma-based method to provide high hydrogen coverage on graphene. A low pressure (∼10 mtorr) discharge generates a fine-tunable low-temperature hydrogen-rich plasma in the applied radial electric and axial magnetic fields. Post-run characterization of these samples using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates a higher hydrogen coverage, 35.8%, than the previously reported results using plasmas. Plasma measurements indicate that with the applied magnetic field, the density of hydrogen atoms can be more than 10 times larger than the density without the magnetic field. With the applied electric field directed away from the graphene substrate, the flux of plasma ions towards this substrate and the ion energy are insufficient to cause measurable damage to the treated 2D material. The low damage allows a relatively long treatment time of the graphene samples that contributes to the high coverage obtained in these experiments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244-251
Number of pages8
StatePublished - Jun 15 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science


  • Cross-field discharge
  • Graphene
  • Hydrogen coverage
  • Low-temperature
  • Magnetic field
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy


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