This article proposes a consistent and efficient estimator of the high-frequency covariance (quadratic covariation) of two arbitrary assets, observed asynchronously with market microstructure noise. This estimator is built on the marriage of the quasi-maximum likelihood estimator of the quadratic variation and the proposed generalized synchronization scheme and thus is not influenced by the Epps effect. Moreover, the estimation procedure is free of tuning parameters or bandwidths and is readily implementable. Monte Carlo simulations show the advantage of this estimator by comparing it with a variety of estimators with specific synchronization methods. The empirical studies of six foreign exchange future contracts illustrate the time-varying correlations of the currencies during the 2008 global financial crisis, demonstrating the similarities and differences in their roles as key currencies in the global market.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Statistics and Probability
- Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty
- Generalized synchronization method
- Market microstructure noise
- Quasi-maximum likelihood estimator
- Refresh time