Herpes simplex virus 1 infection triggers multiple changes in the metabolism of host cells, including a dramatic decrease in the levels of NAD+. In addition to its role as a cofactor in reduction-oxidation reactions, NAD+ is required for certain posttranslational modifications. Members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes are major consumers of NAD+, which they utilize to form poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chains on protein substrates in response to DNA damage. PAR chains can subsequently be removed by the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). We report here that the HSV-1 infectioninduced drop in NAD+ levels required viral DNA replication, was associated with an increase in protein poly(ADPribosyl) ation (PARylation), and was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of PARP-1/PARP-2 (PARP-1/2). Neither virus yield nor the cellular metabolic reprogramming observed during HSV-1 infection was altered by the rescue or further depletion of NAD+ levels. Expression of the viral protein ICP0, which possesses E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, was both necessary and sufficient for the degradation of the 111-kDa PARG isoform. This work demonstrates that HSV-1 infection results in changes to NAD+ metabolism by PARP-1/2 and PARG, and as PAR chain accumulation can induce caspase-independent apoptosis, we speculate that the decrease in PARG levels enhances the auto-PARylation-mediated inhibition of PARP, thereby avoiding premature death of the infected cell.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science