Healing Hanuman’s Army: Veterinary Care as a Core Component of One Health Principles in a Southeast Asian Monkey Forest

James E. Loudon, Michaela E. Howells, Christopher A. Wolfe, I. Nyoman Buana, Wayan Buda, I. Nengah Wandia, I. Gusti Agung Arta Putra, Meghan Patterson, Agustín Fuentes

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Wildlife that inhabit urban landscapes face the dual challenge of negotiating their positions in their group while navigating obstacles of anthropogenically modified landscapes. The dynamics of urban environments can result in novel injuries and mortalities for these animals. However, these negative impacts can be mitigated through planning, and onsite veterinary care like that provided by the Ubud Monkey Forest in Bali, Indonesia. We examined 275 recorded injuries and mortalities among six social groups of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) brought to the veterinary clinic from 2015–2018. We fit the probabilities of injury vs. death among macaques brought to the clinic using a multilevel logistic regression model to infer the relationship between injury vs. death and associated demographic parameters. Males were more likely to sustain injuries and females were more likely to die. The frequency of injuries and mortalities changed over the four-year study period, which was reflected in our model. The odds of mortality were highest among young macaques and the odds of injury vs. mortality varied across the six social groups. We categorized injuries and mortalities as “natural” or “anthropogenic”. Most injuries and mortalities were naturally occurring, but powerlines, motorized vehicles, and plastic present ongoing anthropogenic threats to macaque health. Most wounds and injuries were successfully treated, with healthy animals released back to their group. We suggest other sites with high levels of human–alloprimate interplays consider the Ubud Monkey Forest veterinary office as a model of care and potentially adopt their approaches.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number117
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - Jan 2024

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Animal Science and Zoology
    • General Veterinary


    • anthropogenically disturbed habitats
    • human–alloprimate interplays
    • injury
    • long-tailed macaques
    • Macaca fascicularis
    • mortality
    • One Health
    • Padangtegal
    • Ubud Monkey Forest
    • veterinary care


    Dive into the research topics of 'Healing Hanuman’s Army: Veterinary Care as a Core Component of One Health Principles in a Southeast Asian Monkey Forest'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this