The guiding-center equations are derived for electrons in arbitrarily intense laser fields also subject to external fields and ponderomotive forces. Exhibiting the relativistic mass increase of the oscillating electrons, a simple frame-invariant equation is shown to govern the behavior of the electrons for sufficiently weak background fields and ponderomotive forces. The parameter regime for which such a formulation is valid is made precise, and some predictions of the equation are checked by numerical simulation.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Physics of Plasmas|
|State||Published - 1994|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics