Ground ruptures of the 1974 and 1983 Kaoiki earthquakes, Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii

M. D. Jackson, E. T. Endo, P. T. Delaney, T. Arnadottir, A. M. Rubin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Scopus citations

Abstract

The November 30, 1974, ML = 5.5 and November 16, 1983, ML = 6.6 earthquakes generated left-stepping, en echelon ground cracks within the Kaoiki seismic zone. The general trend of the ruptures, N48°-55°E, parallels a nodal plane of the main shocks' focal mechanisms. Geologic maps and field observations indicate that these features emerge from an underlying strike-slip fault, and they form a "fracture-process zone' above its tip. Elastic solutions indicate that a region of significant tensile stress can exist above buried strike-slip faults. It is suggested that these stresses generated the extensional ground cracks and that shear displacements were transmitted to the Earth's surface by subsequent growth and linkage of these cracks into the observed arrays. -from Authors

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8775-8796
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research
Volume97
Issue numberB6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1992

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology

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