Gravitational lensing analysis of the Kilo-Degree Survey

Konrad Kuijken, Catherine Heymans, Hendrik Hildebrandt, Reiko Nakajima, Thomas Erben, Jelte T.A. De Jong, Massimo Viola, Ami Choi, Henk Hoekstra, Lance Miller, Edo Van Uitert, Alexandra Amon, Chris Blake, Margot Brouwer, Axel Buddendiek, Ian Fenech Conti, Martin Eriksen, Aniello Grado, Joachim Harnois-Déraps, Ewout HelmichRicardo Herbonnet, Nancy Irisarri, Thomas Kitching, Dominik Klaes, Francesco La Barbera, Nicola Napolitano, Mario Radovich, Peter Schneider, Cristóbal Sifón, Gert Sikkema, Patrick Simon, Alexandru Tudorica, Edwin Valentijn, Gijs Verdoes Kleijn, Ludovic Van Waerbeke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

303 Scopus citations


The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) is a multi-band imaging survey designed for cosmological studies from weak lensing and photometric redshifts. It uses the European Southern Observatory VLT Survey Telescope with its wide-field camera OmegaCAM. KiDS images are taken in four filters similar to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugri bands. The best seeing time is reserved for deep r-band observations. The median 5σ limiting AB magnitude is 24.9 and the median seeing is below 0.7 arcsec. Initial KiDS observations have concentrated on the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) regions near the celestial equator, where extensive, highly complete redshift catalogues are available. A total of 109 survey tiles, 1 square degree each, form the basis of the first set of lensing analyses of halo properties of GAMA galaxies. Nine galaxies per square arcminute enter the lensing analysis, for an effective inverse shear variance of 69 arcmin-2. Accounting for the shape measurement weight, the median redshift of the sources is 0.53. KiDS data processing follows two parallel tracks, one optimized for weak lensing measurement and one for accurate matched-aperture photometry (for photometric redshifts). This technical paper describes the lensing and photometric redshift measurements (including a detailed description of the Gaussian aperture and photometry pipeline), summarizes the data quality and presents extensive tests for systematic errors that might affect the lensing analyses. We also provide first demonstrations of the suitability of the data for cosmological measurements, and describe our blinding procedure for preventing confirmation bias in the scientific analyses. The KiDS catalogues presented in this paper are released to the community through

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3500-3532
Number of pages33
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 21 2015
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Cosmology: observations
  • Galaxies: photometry
  • Gravitational lensing: weak
  • Surveys


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