Global forecast of antimicrobial resistance in invasive isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Sumanth Gandra, Siddhartha Mandal, Ramanan Laxminarayan

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48 Scopus citations


Objectives: To project future antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Mixed linear models were constructed from a sample of countries with AMR data in the ResistanceMap database. Inverse probability weighting methods were used to account for countries without AMR data. Results: The estimated prevalence of AMR in 2015 was 64.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 42–87%) for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) Escherichia coli, 5.8% (95% CI 1.8–9.7%) for carbapenem-resistant (CR) E. coli, 66.9% (95% CI 47.1–86.8%) for 3GCR Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 23.4% (95% CI 7.4–39.4%) for CR K. pneumoniae. The projected AMR prevalence in 2030 was 77% (95% CI 55–99.1%) for 3GCR E. coli, 11.8% (95% CI 3.7–19.9%) for CR E. coli, 58.2% (95% CI 50.2–66.1%) for 3GCR K. pneumoniae, and 52.8% (95% CI 16.3–89.3%) for CR K. pneumoniae. Conclusions: The models suggest that third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems could be ineffective against a sizeable proportion of infections by E. coli and K. pneumoniae in most parts of the world by 2030, supporting both the need to enhance stewardship efforts and to prioritize research and development of new antibiotics for resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)50-53
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
StatePublished - Mar 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


  • Drug resistance
  • Enterobacteriaceae infections
  • Forecasting
  • Regression


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