GFDL's CM2 global coupled climate models. Part II: The baseline ocean simulation

Anand Gnanadesikan, Keith W. Dixon, Stephen M. Griffies, V. Balaji, Marcelo Barreiro, J. Anthony Beesley, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Rudiger Gerdes, Matthew J. Harrison, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Hyun Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Giang Nong, Ronald C. Pacanowski, Anthony Rosati, Joellen Russell, Bonita L. Samuels, Qian SongMichael J. Spelman, Ronald J. Stouffer, Colm O. Sweeney, Gabriel Andres Vecchi, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Fanrong Zeng, Rong Zhang, John P. Dunne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

265 Scopus citations


The current generation of coupled climate models run at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) as part of the Climate Change Science Program contains ocean components that differ in almost every respect from those contained in previous generations of GFDL climate models. This paper summarizes the new physical features of the models and examines the simulations that they produce. Of the two new coupled climate model versions 2.1 (CM2.1) and 2.0 (CM2.0), the CM2.1 model represents a major improvement over CM2.0 in most of the major oceanic features examined, with strikingly lower drifts in hydrographic fields such as temperature and salinity, more realistic ventilation of the deep ocean, and currents that are closer to their observed values. Regional analysis of the differences between the models highlights the importance of wind stress in determining the circulation, particularly in the Southern Ocean. At present, major errors in both models are associated with Northern Hemisphere Mode Waters and outflows from overflows, particularly the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)675-697
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Climate
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 1 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science


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