Gender Equity, Opportunity Costs of Parenthood, and Educational Differences in Unintended First Births: Insights from Japan

James M. Raymo, Kelly Musick, Miho Iwasawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

We examine educational differences in the intendedness of first births in Japan using data from a nationally representative survey of married women (N = 2,373). We begin by describing plausible scenarios for a negative, null, and positive educational gradient in unintended first births. In contrast to well-established results from the U.S., we find evidence of a positive educational gradient in Japan. Net of basic demographic controls, university graduates are more likely than less-educated women to report first births as unintended. This pattern is consistent with a scenario emphasizing the high opportunity costs of motherhood in countries such as Japan where growing opportunities for women in employment and other domains of public life have not been accompanied by changes in the highly asymmetric roles of men and women within the family. We discuss potential implications of this suggestive finding for other low-fertility settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-199
Number of pages21
JournalPopulation Research and Policy Review
Volume34
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Demography
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

Keywords

  • Gender and family roles
  • Japan
  • Low fertility
  • Unintended fertility

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