Boundary theories of static bulk topological phases of matter are obstructed in the sense that they cannot be realized on their own as isolated systems. The obstruction can be quantified/characterized by quantum anomalies, in particular when there is a global symmetry. Similarly, topological Floquet evolutions can realize obstructed unitary operators at their boundaries. In this paper, we discuss the characterization of such obstructions by using quantum anomalies. As a particular example, we discuss time-reversal symmetric boundary unitary operators in one and two spatial dimensions, where the anomaly emerges as we gauge the so-called Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) symmetry. We also discuss mixed anomalies between particle number conserving U(1) symmetry and discrete symmetries, such as C and CP, for unitary operators in odd spatial dimensions that can be realized at the boundaries of topological Floquet systems in even spatial dimensions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics