E. Weinan, Jian Guo Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Scopus citations


We present a new formulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation in terms of an auxiliary field that differs from the velocity by a gauge transformation. The gauge freedom allows us to assign simple and specific boundary conditions for both the auxiliary field and the gauge field, thus eliminating the issue of pressure boundary condition in the usual primitive variable formulation. The resulting dynamic and kinematic equations can then be solved by standard methods for heat and Poisson equations. A normal mode analysis suggests that in contrast to the classical projection method, the gauge method does not suffer from the problem of numerical boundary layers. Thus the subtleties in the spatial discretization for the projection method are removed. Consequently, the projection step in the gauge method can be accomplished by standard Poisson solves. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the gauge method by several numerical examples, including the flow past cylinder

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)317-332
Number of pages16
JournalCommunications in Mathematical Sciences
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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