Integrated optical system-on-chip in silicon operating in the visible range can have a tremendous impact on enabling new applications in sensing and imaging through the ultra-miniaturization of complex optical instrumentation. CMOS technology has allowed an integration of optical detection circuitry for image sensors with massively large number of pixels. In this paper, we focus on techniques to realize complex optical-field processing elements inside CMOS by exploiting optical interaction with sub-wavelength metal nanostructures realized in the electrical interconnects layers, whose feature sizes are now in the sub-100-nm range. In particular, we present a fully integrated fluorescence-based bio-molecular sensor in 65-nm CMOS with integrated nanoplasmonic waveguide-based filters capable of more than 50 dB of rejection ratio across a wide range of incident angles. Co-designed with the integrated photo-detection circuitry, capacitive TIAs, and correlated double-sampling circuitry, the sensor is capable of detecting 48 zeptomoles of quantum dots on the surface with 52 fA of photodetector current with a fluorescence/excitation ratio of nearly -62 dB without any post-fabrication, external optical filters, lenses, or collimators. The ability to integrate complex nanoplasmonic metal structures with unique optical properties in CMOS with no post-processing creates the opportunity to enable large multiplexed assays on a single chip and a wide variety of applications, from in vitro to in vivo.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- CMOS imager
- metal optics