### Abstract

The conjecture is verified that the optimum, energy minimizing, magnetic flux for a half-filled band of electrons hopping on a planar, bipartite graph is per square plaquette. We require only that the graph has periodicity in one direction and the result includes the hexagonal lattice (with flux 0 per hexagon) as a special case. The theorem goes beyond previous conjectures in several ways: (1) It does not assume, a priori, that all plaquettes have the same flux (as in Hofstadter's model). (2) A Hubbard-type on-site interaction of any sign, as well as certain longer range interactions, can be included. (3) The conclusion holds for positive temperature as well as the ground state. (4) The results hold in D2 dimensions if there is periodicity in D-1 directions (e.g., the cubic lattice has the lowest energy if there is flux in each square face).

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 2158-2161 |

Number of pages | 4 |

Journal | Physical review letters |

Volume | 73 |

Issue number | 16 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jan 1 1994 |

### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Physics and Astronomy(all)

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## Cite this

*Physical review letters*,

*73*(16), 2158-2161. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.73.2158