TY - JOUR

T1 - Flammability Limits

T2 - A Comprehensive Review of Theory, Experiments, and Estimation Methods

AU - Mendiburu, Andrés Z.

AU - Carvalho, João A.

AU - Ju, Yiguang

N1 - Funding Information:
The authors are grateful to CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) for supporting this work through Projects 423369/2018-0 and 308915/2022-4, and to FAPERGS (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Rio Grande do Sul) for supporting this work through Project 21/2551-0000677-3. The authors would also like to thank the grant support from DOE BES award DE-SC0021135 and the ExxonMobil fuel research grant.
Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society

PY - 2023/3/16

Y1 - 2023/3/16

N2 - Flammability limits play an important role in combustion research, industrial applications, and fire safety. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent developments in the fundamental understanding of flammability limits and their experimental determination as well as estimation methods for pure fuels and fuel mixtures. The article begins with a discussion of the importance and challenges of determining flammability limits. It then presents the theoretical, computational, and experimental methods available to understand the mechanism of flammability limits and to quantify them. The experimental setups using cylindrical and spherical vessels to determine the flammability limits are discussed. The effects of buoyancy, thermal radiation, and flame stretch are examined. The relationship between the fundamental flammability limits and the extinction limits of stretched flames via strain and radiation is presented. The effects of initial temperature, pressure, mixtures of different fuels, and diluents are examined, and available estimation methods are presented. Finally, the flammability limits of renewable and alternative fuels are addressed and strategies for estimating the flammability limits of these fuels are presented.

AB - Flammability limits play an important role in combustion research, industrial applications, and fire safety. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent developments in the fundamental understanding of flammability limits and their experimental determination as well as estimation methods for pure fuels and fuel mixtures. The article begins with a discussion of the importance and challenges of determining flammability limits. It then presents the theoretical, computational, and experimental methods available to understand the mechanism of flammability limits and to quantify them. The experimental setups using cylindrical and spherical vessels to determine the flammability limits are discussed. The effects of buoyancy, thermal radiation, and flame stretch are examined. The relationship between the fundamental flammability limits and the extinction limits of stretched flames via strain and radiation is presented. The effects of initial temperature, pressure, mixtures of different fuels, and diluents are examined, and available estimation methods are presented. Finally, the flammability limits of renewable and alternative fuels are addressed and strategies for estimating the flammability limits of these fuels are presented.

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U2 - 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.2c03598

DO - 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.2c03598

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:85149370693

SN - 0887-0624

VL - 37

SP - 4151

EP - 4197

JO - Energy and Fuels

JF - Energy and Fuels

IS - 6

ER -