Short-lived surges in traffic can cause periods of high queue utilization, leading to packet loss and delay. To diagnose and alleviate performance problems, networks need support for real-time, fine-grained queue measurement. By identifying the flows that contribute significantly to queue build-up directly in the data plane, switches can make targeted decisions to mark, drop, or reroute these flows in real time. However, collecting fine-grained queue statistics is challenging even with modern programmable switch hardware, due to limited memory and processing resources in the data plane. We present ConQuest, a compact data structure that identifies the flows making a significant contribution to the queue. ConQuest operates entirely in the data plane, while working within the hardware constraints of programmable switches. Additionally, we show how to measure queues in legacy devices through link tapping and an off-path switch running ConQuest. Simulations show that ConQuest can identify contributing flows with 90% precision on a 1 ms timescale, using less than 65 KB of memory. Experiments with our Barefoot Tofino prototype show that ConQuest-enabled active queue management reduces flow-completion time.