Fiber optic sensing presents unique features that have no match in conventional sensing techniques. The ability to measure temperatures and strain at thousands of points along a single fiber is particularly interesting for the monitoring of elongated structures such as pipelines, flow lines, oil wells and coiled tubing. Distributed sensing systems based on Brillouin and Raman scattering are used for example to detect pipeline leakages, verify pipeline operational parameters, prevent failure of pipelines installed in landslide areas, optimize oil production from wells and detect hot-spots in high-power cables. Point sensors based on Interferometric and FBG setups are also effective tools to assess the static and dynamic response of structures such as offshore platforms and risers. This contribution presents different applications of distributed and point sensors to innovative oil and gas structures such as composite coiled tubing, high-pressure composite gas pipeline and deep-water risers.