TY - JOUR

T1 - Fast 2D fluid-analytical simulation of ion energy distributions and electromagnetic effects in multi-frequency capacitive discharges

AU - Kawamura, E.

AU - Lieberman, M. A.

AU - Graves, D. B.

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

PY - 2014/12/1

Y1 - 2014/12/1

N2 - A fast 2D axisymmetric fluid-analytical plasma reactor model using the finite elements simulation tool COMSOL is interfaced with a 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) code to study ion energy distributions (IEDs) in multi-frequency capacitive argon discharges. A bulk fluid plasma model, which solves the time-dependent plasma fluid equations for the ion continuity and electron energy balance, is coupled with an analytical sheath model, which solves for the sheath parameters. The time-independent Helmholtz equation is used to solve for the fields and a gas flow model solves for the steady-state pressure, temperature and velocity of the neutrals. The results of the fluid-analytical model are used as inputs to a PIC simulation of the sheath region of the discharge to obtain the IEDs at the target electrode. Each 2D fluid-analytical-PIC simulation on a moderate 2.2 GHz CPU workstation with 8 GB of memory took about 15-20 min. The multi-frequency 2D fluid-analytical model was compared to 1D PIC simulations of a symmetric parallel-plate discharge, showing good agreement. We also conducted fluid-analytical simulations of a multi-frequency argon capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) with a typical asymmetric reactor geometry at 2/60/162 MHz. The low frequency 2 MHz power controlled the sheath width and sheath voltage while the high frequencies controlled the plasma production. A standing wave was observable at the highest frequency of 162 MHz. We noticed that adding 2 MHz power to a 60 MHz discharge or 162 MHz to a dual frequency 2 MHz/60 MHz discharge can enhance the plasma uniformity. We found that multiple frequencies were not only useful for controlling IEDs but also plasma uniformity in CCP reactors.

AB - A fast 2D axisymmetric fluid-analytical plasma reactor model using the finite elements simulation tool COMSOL is interfaced with a 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) code to study ion energy distributions (IEDs) in multi-frequency capacitive argon discharges. A bulk fluid plasma model, which solves the time-dependent plasma fluid equations for the ion continuity and electron energy balance, is coupled with an analytical sheath model, which solves for the sheath parameters. The time-independent Helmholtz equation is used to solve for the fields and a gas flow model solves for the steady-state pressure, temperature and velocity of the neutrals. The results of the fluid-analytical model are used as inputs to a PIC simulation of the sheath region of the discharge to obtain the IEDs at the target electrode. Each 2D fluid-analytical-PIC simulation on a moderate 2.2 GHz CPU workstation with 8 GB of memory took about 15-20 min. The multi-frequency 2D fluid-analytical model was compared to 1D PIC simulations of a symmetric parallel-plate discharge, showing good agreement. We also conducted fluid-analytical simulations of a multi-frequency argon capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) with a typical asymmetric reactor geometry at 2/60/162 MHz. The low frequency 2 MHz power controlled the sheath width and sheath voltage while the high frequencies controlled the plasma production. A standing wave was observable at the highest frequency of 162 MHz. We noticed that adding 2 MHz power to a 60 MHz discharge or 162 MHz to a dual frequency 2 MHz/60 MHz discharge can enhance the plasma uniformity. We found that multiple frequencies were not only useful for controlling IEDs but also plasma uniformity in CCP reactors.

KW - capacitive discharges

KW - electromagnetic effects

KW - fluid simulations

KW - ion energy distributions

KW - Multi-frequency sources

KW - particle-in-cell simulations

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U2 - 10.1088/0963-0252/23/6/064003

DO - 10.1088/0963-0252/23/6/064003

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84915748783

SN - 0963-0252

VL - 23

JO - Plasma Sources Science and Technology

JF - Plasma Sources Science and Technology

IS - 6

M1 - 064003

ER -