Escherichia coli general NAD(P)H:flavin oxidoreductase (Fre) does not have a bound flavin cofactor; its flavin substrates (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD) are believed to bind to it mainly through the isoalloxazine ring. This interaction was real for riboflavin and FMN, but not for FAD, which bound to Fre much tighter than FMN or riboflavin. Computer simulations of Fre·FAD and Fre·FMN complexes showed that FAD adopted an unusual bent conformation, allowing its ribityl side chain and ADP moiety to form an additional 3.28 H-bonds on average with amino acid residues located in the loop connecting Fβ5 and Fα1 of the flavin-binding domain and at the proposed NAD(P)H-binding site. Experimental data supported the overlapping binding sites of FAD and NAD(P)H. AMP, a known competitive inhibitor with respect to NAD(P)H, decreased the affinity of Fre for FAD. FAD behaved as a mixed-type inhibitor with respect to NADPH. The overlapped binding offers a plausible explanation for the large Km values of Fre for NADH and NADPH when FAD is the electron acceptor. Although Fre reduces FMN faster than it reduces FAD, it preferentially reduces FAD when both FMN and FAD are present. Our data suggest that FAD is a preferred substrate and an inhibitor, suppressing the activities of Fre at low NADH concentrations.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology