Facultative nitrogen fixation by canopy legumes in a lowland tropical forest

Alexander R. Barron, Drew W. Purves, Lars O. Hedin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

156 Scopus citations


Symbiotic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is often invoked to explain the N richness of tropical forests as ostensibly N2-fixing trees can be a major component of the community. Such arguments assume N2 fixers are fixing N when present. However, in laboratory experiments, legumes consistently reduce N2 fixation in response to increased soil N availability. These contrasting views of N2 fixation as either obligate or facultative have drastically different implications for the N cycle of tropical forests. We tested these models by directly measuring N2-fixing root nodules and nitrogenase activity of individual canopy-dominant legume trees (Inga sp.) across several lowland forest types. Fixation was substantial in disturbed forests and some gaps but near zero in the high N soils of mature forest. Our findings suggest that canopy legumes closely regulate N2 fixation, leading to large variations in N inputs across the landscape, and low symbiotic fixation in mature forests despite abundant legumes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)511-520
Number of pages10
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics


  • Ecosystem
  • Gap
  • Inga
  • Nitrogen
  • Nitrogen limitation
  • Nitrostat
  • Nutrient cycling
  • Plant strategy
  • Succession


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