Extensional deformation of Newtonian liquid bridges

S. Gaudet, G. H. McKinley, Howard A. Stone

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72 Scopus citations


A numerical investigation is presented of axisymmetric, static and elongating, viscous Newtonian liquid bridges confined between identical circular disks. The time-dependent interface shapes and applied forces on the end plates, which separate at a constant prescribed velocity, are calculated as functions of the capillary number, the viscosity ratio between the inner and outer fluids, and an initial bridge configuration characterized by the aspect ratio. The numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with available experimental data and provide useful insight into the different dynamical responses of extending liquid bridge configurations. In particular, liquid bridges surrounded by fluids of a relatively small viscosity deform in a fore-aft symmetrical manner and undergo breakup sooner than in the case of relatively viscous outer fluids, which also require a greater applied force on the end plates to maintain the desired motion. Decreasing the capillary number (increasing interfacial tension) and the initial aspect ratio result in shorter bridge lengths prior to breakup and an increase in the applied forces on the end plates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2568-2579
Number of pages12
JournalPhysics of Fluids
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1996

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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