Explaining prompts children to privilege inductively rich properties

Caren M. Walker, Tania Lombrozo, Cristine H. Legare, Alison Gopnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Scopus citations

Abstract

Four experiments with preschool-aged children test the hypothesis that engaging in explanation promotes inductive reasoning on the basis of shared causal properties as opposed to salient (but superficial) perceptual properties. In Experiments 1a and 1b, 3- to 5-year-old children prompted to explain during a causal learning task were more likely to override a tendency to generalize according to perceptual similarity and instead extend an internal feature to an object that shared a causal property. Experiment 2 replicated this effect of explanation in a case of label extension (i.e., categorization). Experiment 3 demonstrated that explanation improves memory for clusters of causally relevant (non-perceptual) features, but impairs memory for superficial (perceptual) features, providing evidence that effects of explanation are selective in scope and apply to memory as well as inference. In sum, our data support the proposal that engaging in explanation influences children's reasoning by privileging inductively rich, causal properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)343-357
Number of pages15
JournalCognition
Volume133
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Cognitive Neuroscience

Keywords

  • Category labels
  • Causal reasoning
  • Explanation
  • Generalization
  • Inductive inference
  • Non-obvious properties

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