Existence of thermodynamics for real matter with coulomb forces

J. L. Lebowitz, Elliott H. Lieb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

128 Scopus citations


It is shown that a system made up of nuclei and electrons, the constituents of ordinary matter, has a well-defined statistical -mechanically computed free energy per unit volume in the thermodynamic (bulk) limit. This proves that statistical mechanics, as developed by Gibbs, really leads to a proper thermodynamics for macroscopic systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)631-634
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number13
StatePublished - 1969

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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