Excess electrons in reduced rutile and anatase TiO2

Wen Jin Yin, Bo Wen, Chuanyao Zhou, Annabella Selloni, Li Min Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

106 Scopus citations


As a prototypical photocatalyst, TiO2 is a material of scientific and technological interest. In photocatalysis and other applications, TiO2 is often reduced, behaving as an n-type semiconductor with unique physico-chemical properties. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the fundamental properties and applications of excess electrons in reduced, undoped TiO2. We discuss the characteristics of excess electrons in the bulk and at the surface of rutile and anatase TiO2 focusing on their localization, spatial distribution, energy levels, and dynamical properties. We examine specific features of the electronic states for photoexcited TiO2, for intrinsic oxygen vacancy and Ti interstitial defects, and for surface hydroxyls. We discuss similarities and differences in the behaviors of excess electrons in the rutile and anatase phases. Finally, we consider the effect of excess electrons on the reactivity, focusing on the interaction between excess electrons and adsorbates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-82
Number of pages25
JournalSurface Science Reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Excess electrons in reduced rutile and anatase TiO2'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this