Europium doped yttrium silicate nanophosphors were successfully synthesized for the first time by using the flame spray pyrolysis method. The effect of silicon concentration on the crystal structure, morphology, and photoluminescence intensity of the Y2SiO5:Eu phosphors were investigated. The as-prepared nanophosphors give good red luminescence under ultraviolet excitation compared with commercial Y2O 3:Eu lamp phosphors, and have spherical morphology and narrow size distribution. The crystal structure and photoluminescence intensity were strongly affected by the ratio of silicon to yttrium in the precursor solution. The maximum photoluminescence intensity obtained from the phosphors prepared from silicon to yttrium ratio of 1.25. A concentration quenching limit was observed at 30 mol% Eu of yttrium component, The flame spray pyrolysis demonstrated advantages over other synthesis methods for the preparation of Y2SiO5:Eu nanophosphors and the potential for industrial applications.