Ethnic Enclaves and the Earnings of Immigrants

Yu Xie, Margaret Gough

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

141 Scopus citations


A large literature in sociology concerns the implications of immigrants' participation in ethnic enclaves for their economic and social well-being. The "enclave thesis" speculates that immigrants benefit from working in ethnic enclaves. Previous research concerning the effects of enclave participation on immigrants' economic outcomes has come to mixed conclusions as to whether enclave effects are positive or negative. In this article, we seek to extend and improve upon past work by formulating testable hypotheses based on the enclave thesis and testing them with data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS), employing both residence-based and workplace-based measures of the ethnic enclave. We compare the economic outcomes of immigrants working in ethnic enclaves with those of immigrants working in the mainstream economy. Our research yields minimal support for the enclave thesis. Our results further indicate that for some immigrant groups, ethnic enclave participation actually has a negative effect on economic outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1293-1315
Number of pages23
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2011
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Demography


  • Assimilation
  • Earnings
  • Ethnic enclaves
  • Immigrants


Dive into the research topics of 'Ethnic Enclaves and the Earnings of Immigrants'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this