Entanglement of biphoton states: Qutrits and ququarts

M. V. Fedorov, P. A. Volkov, J. M. Mikhailova, S. S. Straupe, S. P. Kulik

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27 Scopus citations


We investigate, in a general form, entanglement of biphoton qutrits and ququarts, i.e. states formed in the processes of, correspondingly, degenerate and non-degenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Indistinguishability of photons and, for ququarts, joint presence of the frequency and polarization entanglement are fully taken into account. In the case of qutrits, the most general three-parametric families of maximally entangled and non-entangled states are found, and anticorrelation of the degree of entanglement and polarization is shown to occur and to be characterized by a rather simple formula. Biphoton ququarts are shown to be two-qudits with the single-photon Hilbert space dimensionality d = 4, which differentiates them significantly from the often used two-qubit model (d = 2). New expressions for entanglement quantifiers of biphoton ququarts are derived and discussed. Rather simple procedures for a direct measurement of the degree of entanglement are described for both qutrits and ququarts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number083004
JournalNew Journal of Physics
StatePublished - Aug 2011
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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