Entanglement and its relation to energy variance for local one-dimensional Hamiltonians

Mari Carmen Bañuls, David A. Huse, J. Ignacio Cirac

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11 Scopus citations


We explore the relation between the entanglement of a pure state and its energy variance for a local one-dimensional Hamiltonian, as the system size increases. In particular, we introduce a construction which creates a matrix product state of arbitrarily small energy variance δ2 for N spins, with bond dimension scaling as ND01/δ, where D0>1 is a constant. This implies that a polynomially increasing bond dimension is enough to construct states with energy variance that vanishes with the inverse of the logarithm of the system size. We run numerical simulations to probe the construction on two different models and compare the local reduced density matrices of the resulting states to the corresponding thermal equilibrium. Our results suggest that the spatially homogeneous states with logarithmically decreasing variance, which can be constructed efficiently, do converge to the thermal equilibrium in the thermodynamic limit, while the same is not true if the variance remains constant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number144305
JournalPhysical Review B
Issue number14
StatePublished - Apr 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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