Enso extremes and diversity: Dynamics, teleconnections, and impacts

Agus Santoso, Wenju Cai, Mat Collins, Mike McPhaden, Fei Fei Jin, Eric Guilyardi, Gabriel Andres Vecchi, Dietmar Dommenget, Guojian Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


In boreal spring of 2014, the tropical Pacific was primed for an El Niño, when most forecast agen?cies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology elevated their El Niño probability to more than 60%. A remarkable increase in warm water volume with a series of westerly wind bursts in boreal spring alerted the El Niño?Southern Oscillation (ENSO) experts to the possibility of a strong event. The mean climate, upon which ENSO evolved, varied on multi-decadal time scales, manifesting itself as a global-scale phenom?enon in what is commonly known as the IPO or PDO.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1969-1972
Number of pages4
JournalBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science


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