Enhancing the Charge Extraction and Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Strontium Titanate (SrTiO3) Electron Transport Layer

Marios Neophytou, Michele De Bastiani, Nicola Gasparini, Erkan Aydin, Esma Ugur, Akmaral Seitkhan, Floriana Moruzzi, Yasmin Choaie, Alexandra J. Ramadan, Joel R. Troughton, Rawad Hallani, Achilleas Savva, Leonidas Tsetseris, Sahika Inal, Derya Baran, Frédéric Laquai, Thomas D. Anthopoulos, Henry J. Snaith, Stefaan De Wolf, Iain McCulloch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Charge transport layers strongly influence the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). To date, compact layers and mesoporous scaffolds of titanium dioxide have emerged as good electron transport layers (ETL), enabling record power conversion efficiencies (PCE). However, these ETLs require sintering above 400 °C, which excludes them from low-temperature applications such as flexible devices and silicon-heterojunction tandems. Furthermore, instability of TiO2 under prolonged exposure to sunlight appears to be a critical issue. Here, we present the promising characteristics of low-temperature processed strontium titanate (STO) as an ETL to realize PSCs with 19% PCE. STO is a wide bandgap transparent inorganic perovskite. Compared with other low-temperature processed interlayers, STO reduces the parasitic absorption in the ultraviolet and visible range, improves the electron transport, and greatly increases the stability of the devices, retaining ∼80% of their initial efficiency after 1000 h of constant white light illumination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8090-8097
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 25 2019
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


  • charge extraction
  • electron transport layers
  • oxide perovskites
  • perovskite solar cells
  • photovoltaic device stability
  • strontium titanate


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