Hybrid organic–inorganic metal halide perovskites are particularly promising for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) due to their attractive optoelectronic properties such as wavelength tunability, narrow emission linewidth, defect tolerance, and high charge carrier mobility. However, the undercoordinated Pb and halide at the perovskite nanocrystal (NC) surface causes traps and nonradiative recombination. In this work, the external quantum efficiency of iodide-based perovskite LEDs is boosted to greater than 15%, with an emission wavelength at 750 nm, by engineering the perovskite NC surface stoichiometry and chemical structure of bulky organoammonium ligands. To the stoichiometric precursor solution for the 3D bulk perovskite, 20% molar ratio of methylammonium iodide is added in addition to 20% excess bulky organoammonium iodide to ensure that the NC surface is organoammonium terminated as the crystal size is decreased to 5–10 nm. This combination ensures minimal undercoordinated Pb and halide on the surface, avoids 2D phases, and acts to provide nanosized perovskite grains which allow for smooth and pinhole-free films. As a result of time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) and PL quantum yield measurements, it is possible to demonstrate that this surface modification increases the radiative recombination rate while reducing the nonradiative rate.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- light-emitting diodes
- organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite
- surface engineering