TY - JOUR

T1 - Energy Efficiency of Massive Random Access in MIMO Quasi-Static Rayleigh Fading Channels With Finite Blocklength

AU - Gao, Junyuan

AU - Wu, Yongpeng

AU - Shao, Shuo

AU - Yang, Wei

AU - Poor, H. Vincent

N1 - Funding Information:
The work of Yongpeng Wu was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant 2018YFB1801102, in part by the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant 62122052 and Grant 62071289, in part by the 111 Project under Grant BP0719010, and in part by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (STCSM) under Grant 18DZ2270700. The work of Shuo Shao was supported in part by the NSFC under Grant 61872149, Grant 61901261, and Grant 12031011. The work of H. Vincent Poor was supported in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant CCF-1908308.
Publisher Copyright:
© 1963-2012 IEEE.

PY - 2023/3/1

Y1 - 2023/3/1

N2 - This paper considers the massive random access problem in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) quasi-static Rayleigh fading channels. Specifically, we derive achievability and converse bounds on the minimum energy-per-bit required for each active user to transmit J bits with blocklength n , power P , and L receive antennas under a per-user probability of error (PUPE) constraint, in the cases with and without a priori channel state information at the receiver (CSIR and no-CSI). In the case of no-CSI, we consider both the settings with and without the knowledge of the number Ka of active users at the receiver. Numerical evaluation shows that the gap between achievability and converse bounds is less than 2.5 dB for the CSIR case and less than 4 dB for the no-CSI case in most considered regimes. Under the condition that the distribution of Ka is known in advance, the uncertainty of the exact value of Ka entails only a small penalty in terms of energy efficiency. Our results show the significance of MIMO for the massive random access problem. As an example, we show that the spectral efficiency grows approximately linearly with the number of receive antennas in the case of CSIR, whereas the growth rate decreases in the case of no-CSI. Moreover, in the case of no-CSI, we demonstrate the suboptimality of the pilot-assisted scheme, especially when the number of active users is large. Building on non-asymptotic results, assuming all users are active and J= (1) , we obtain scaling laws of the number of supported users as follows: when L = ({n2 ) and P= ({1}{n2) , one can reliably serve K = {O}(n{2}) users in the case of no-CSI; under mild conditions in the case of CSIR, the PUPE requirement is satisfied if and only if nL\ln KP}{K}=({1}).

AB - This paper considers the massive random access problem in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) quasi-static Rayleigh fading channels. Specifically, we derive achievability and converse bounds on the minimum energy-per-bit required for each active user to transmit J bits with blocklength n , power P , and L receive antennas under a per-user probability of error (PUPE) constraint, in the cases with and without a priori channel state information at the receiver (CSIR and no-CSI). In the case of no-CSI, we consider both the settings with and without the knowledge of the number Ka of active users at the receiver. Numerical evaluation shows that the gap between achievability and converse bounds is less than 2.5 dB for the CSIR case and less than 4 dB for the no-CSI case in most considered regimes. Under the condition that the distribution of Ka is known in advance, the uncertainty of the exact value of Ka entails only a small penalty in terms of energy efficiency. Our results show the significance of MIMO for the massive random access problem. As an example, we show that the spectral efficiency grows approximately linearly with the number of receive antennas in the case of CSIR, whereas the growth rate decreases in the case of no-CSI. Moreover, in the case of no-CSI, we demonstrate the suboptimality of the pilot-assisted scheme, especially when the number of active users is large. Building on non-asymptotic results, assuming all users are active and J= (1) , we obtain scaling laws of the number of supported users as follows: when L = ({n2 ) and P= ({1}{n2) , one can reliably serve K = {O}(n{2}) users in the case of no-CSI; under mild conditions in the case of CSIR, the PUPE requirement is satisfied if and only if nL\ln KP}{K}=({1}).

KW - Energy efficiency

KW - MIMO

KW - finite blocklength

KW - massive random access

KW - scaling law

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U2 - 10.1109/TIT.2022.3220261

DO - 10.1109/TIT.2022.3220261

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85141624170

SN - 0018-9448

VL - 69

SP - 1618

EP - 1657

JO - IEEE Transactions on Information Theory

JF - IEEE Transactions on Information Theory

IS - 3

ER -